Aphid. How to deal with the worst pest?
People say: “In order to defeat, you need to know the enemy in person.” And in order to get rid of aphids in the garden or in the garden, you need to know the cycle of its development and be sure not to miss the period most sensitive to pests. For example: it is useless to spray plants if eggs are already laid on them. They are protected from the action of poison, do not use processed plants for food (they do not gnaw or suck juice from plants), which means that they are not afraid of poison. Processing plants wasted. It is necessary to wait until the larvae hatch, and then by spraying the pest is destroyed by 70-100%. It is the larvae, eating day and night, that cause the greatest harm to plants.
Aphid (Aphidoidea) - the superfamily of insects. About 4000 species of aphids are known, of which nearly a thousand live in Europe. All aphids feed on plant juices, many are dangerous pests of cultivated plants. In addition, many species are able to spread plant diseases in the form of viruses and cause various anomalies in plants, such as galls and gall-like formations.
I propose to consider the aphid development cycle and determine the most vulnerable stages of development for drug treatments.
Aphid Development Cycle
An adult fertilized female aphid lays wintering eggs on branches and tree bark, perennial shoots of shrubs, trying to place them near the buds, on tops. The eggs are oblong-oval, black, up to 0.5 mm long, visible to the naked eye. “Knowing” that it is warm under the snow, the female aphid lays eggs on basal shoots and weeds. When wintering under the snow, almost all masonry survive. Aphids and "housekeeping" ants take care of the eggs, picking up the eggs until spring in their underground dwellings, and in the spring with the onset of heat, they lay eggs on old branches, young shoots, leave them on young leaves.
From overwintered eggs, several generations (2-4-8) of wingless females develop, the reproduction of which takes place without males. In June-July, winged forms of settler aphids appear. Aphids fly away, especially with a fair wind, up to 25 km, and settle in the same crops. These are aphids monoecious, and there are still species with a dioecious development cycle. They begin spring development on the main host, with the advent of winged forms for the summer they fly to nurseries (the second host) - various herbaceous plants, weeds, vegetable crops and return in autumn to lay eggs to the main host. In the fall, after mating, the female aphid lays fertilized wintering eggs.
Gloomy statistics! Each female lays up to 100 eggs for the winter. Of these, 100 female individuals develop, which mature in 1.5-2.0 weeks and lay on average 100 eggs each. During the growing season, one female is able to increase the offspring up to 15-20 thousand pests per season.
Thus, aphids have 3 of the most vulnerable periods when their destruction will contribute to a general decrease in the number of these pests in the garden: careful autumn preparation for wintering, the flight period of female settlers, the appearance of winged males and return to the host. This does not mean that the rest of the time you do not need to process the trees. Hatching occurs every 2 weeks and the treatment of trees and shrubs, respectively. 3 selected periods - maximum damage, during this period maximum attention and mandatory treatment of plants is necessary.
Autumn preparation of the garden for wintering
- remove all weeds under the crowns of trees, cut basal shoots, remove them from the garden and destroy or send them into a compost pit,
- whitewash boles and skeletal branches of trees with freshly prepared lime mortar with the addition of copper sulfate, clay, PVA glue. In the spring, whitewash is repeated in late February-March. In summer, it’s better not to whiten the trees so as not to disturb the symbiotic-friendly relations with the natural enemies of aphids and other pests,
- in winter, in your free time, look at the composition of the plantings and take away such flower crops as poppy, nasturtium, cosmea, chamomile, mallow, chrysanthemums, Jerusalem artichoke and sunflower from garden crops, and viburnum and linden from tree crops, away from the garden (and the garden too). These are the favorite nurseries of aphids. From currants, gooseberries and other berries, take away plantings of spice-flavor crops, salads, chicory,
- during the summer, destroy the anthills and in the fall, before the frost, dig it wide and fill it with a solution or just water.
Spring work to protect plants from aphids
- As soon as the snow falls, inspect the garden crops, be sure to carry out sanitary pruning, take out the trash.
- Discovered anthills, preserved from autumn, must be destroyed. With the appearance of the first ants on the tree stands, repeat the whitewashing and spray the trees with the preparation.
- Set the fishing belts soaked in poisonous powder or mortar. Apply special glue to the strain and attach a hunting belt. Ants will not be able to overcome the barrier and die, along with a load of aphid eggs.
- Aphid is terrible for its omnivorousness. More than 4000 thousand species of aphids and the vast majority does not harm one, but several cultures. Therefore, even before the budding of buds begins, it is necessary to conduct the first spraying of all fruit trees with solutions of nicotine sulfate or nitrophene at the dose recommended in the explanatory note to the drug. Use more modern drugs recommended in your area.
- Since the berry plants form the crop early (raspberries, currants, gooseberries, etc.), before starting the buds to bloom, buy them in hot water (70-80 degrees) without toxic chemicals.
- In the spring-summer period, do not overfeed the plants with nitrogen. The enhanced development of the young vegetative mass will provide the aphids a comfortable life, while elastic leaves and young shoots with dense skin are not accessible to them.
- During this period, optimal irrigation is sprinkling. It will wash away the pit, which attracts ants, aphid eggs, and the aphid itself, which, when it falls to the ground, dies. No need to once again treat the trees with pesticides. Stop irrigation by sprinkling and switch to the ground method only during flowering, so as not to wet the pollen.
With leaf buds blooming, buds swelling and flowering begins, they proceed to the systematic processing of trees and berries. Despite the great variety of aphids, and other pests join them in the summer, the number of treatments can be reduced if they are carried out with tank mixtures of insecticides.
Active aphid control measures
The use of chemicals
Chemical preparations (insecticides) by the method of exposure to aphids and other pests are divided into 3 groups:
If you combine drugs of all methods of exposure in a tank mixture, then for the season 3 (three) sprayings will be enough:
- before flowering in the phase of the beginning of budding,
- after flowering in the phase of the onset of ovary growth,
- 25-30 days before harvesting.
Remember, chemical insecticides will kill not only pests, but also helpers - birds, beneficial insects, and also have a negative impact on households and animals. Chemicals used to kill pests are removed from plants after 3-5 weeks. The use of fruits earlier than the specified period is strictly prohibited.
Chemical products for the control of aphids
The most famous insecticides with a quick effect of destruction are actofit, karbofos, intavir, actara, spark, tanrek, commander and several others. The list of insecticides approved for use is supplemented and changed annually. It can be found in the relevant catalogs and directories. In the recommendations, along with the characteristic, norms and methods of application, periods of spraying are given.
Work with chemical insecticides in protective clothing, gloves, goggles and a respirator. Apply them only according to the recommendations. Increasing the dose, reducing the waiting time until the next treatment will not provide the expected positive effect. Knowing their negative impact on health, it is better to use biological drugs in small gardens and berry plants.
Biological products have an exposure period of 10-15 days, but they are absolutely harmless to humans, birds and animals and they can be sprayed with plants until harvest, which is very convenient for multi-crop crops. After processing the plants with some biological products, the fruits can be used as food for 2-3 days.
The most familiar bioinsecticides include bitoxibacillin, acarin, spark-BIO and others. Their basis is living beneficial microorganisms (different groups of fungi, bacteria). Bioinsecticides are effective not only in protecting plants from aphids, but also in other pests. The duration of bioinsecticides is 10-20 days and therefore spraying must be repeated. But these biological products are absolutely harmless to adults, children, animals, birds and beneficial insects. Dilution rates and processing times are indicated on packages or in practical recommendations.
Bioinsecticides that can be used even during flowering of plants include bioinsecticide trichopolum (a drug used in official pharmacology as a therapeutic for bacterial infections). For spraying, dissolve 20 tablets in 10 l of water. Compatible with many other biological products, but still requires compatibility testing. Trichopolum can be sprayed not only trees and shrubs, but also vegetable crops (tomatoes, cucumbers, dill, etc.). The duration of action is limited by precipitation, but immediately after the cessation of rain, spraying of plants can be repeated. You can work with the solution without overalls. The drug is remarkable in that it destroys fungal diseases of crops at the same time as pests.
Biological product "arrow" in its composition contains bitoxibacillin. Suitable for processing all garden crops, garden and greenhouse. The biological product, in addition to the negative impact on aphids and other pests, is also a top dressing for greenhouse and garden crops. The duration of the biological product is 2-3 weeks, after which the treatment must be repeated. To prepare a solution in 10 l of water, dissolve 50 g of a powdery preparation, mix thoroughly. Can be used in tank mixes after compatibility testing.
Human protection when processing plants is limited to glasses and gloves. Spraying can be carried out during flowering. Aphids die within 2 days. The biological product is recommended for use from early spring until harvest. The waiting period is 5-6 days, after which the fruits and vegetables can be eaten. In addition to the bioinsecticides listed and described above, new more effective biological products appear annually. In households, chemical insecticides and other chemicals are not recommended.
In addition to chemical and biological drugs for pest control, alternative methods of getting rid of a malicious insect can be suggested.
If you decide to apply folk methods to fight aphids and related pests, you need to prepare the necessary ingredients in the fall: onion husk with unnecessary heads, garlic, potato tops, dandelion roots, ash, laundry soap. If the family has children, you can not use infusions and decoctions of poisonous herbs. These infusions are poisonous not only for pests of garden crops, but also for humans.
From home remedies, you can recommend:
- Ash and soap solution. 2-3 cups of ash pour 10 liters of warm water, insist for 2-3 days, strain, dissolve in a solution a piece of finely grated laundry soap and sprinkle during the budding of fruit and berry crops.
- Garlic Dandelion Infusion. Finely chopped dandelion plants (green mass and roots) and garlic heads, respectively 400 and 200 g, soak in 10 l of warm water. Leave the mixture to infuse for 2-3 hours, strain and use for spraying in the phase of bud blooming and after flowering.
- Onion peel with garlic (you can use the heads) finely chop, pour warm water. Leave on for 2-3 days. Strain, dilute the resulting solution 3 times and use for spraying, and transfer the fermented mass to a compost pit.
There are hundreds of such tips on the Internet, but be careful. At home you can not cook decoctions and infusions from poisonous herbs (hemlock) and spray them with culture. Someone in the family may eat fruit or vegetables and get poisoned.
Aphid is a gentle pest and does not tolerate strong repulsive spicy odors. Fennel, garlic, marigolds, mint scare away the pest, and petunia, mallow, begonia, nasturtium attract her with their aroma. The first planted in the aisles along the edge of the beds, and the second - away. Favorite fragrance will attract aphids. But in the fall, the aerial mass of these flowering plants must be destroyed, since the aphids have their wintering ovipositions on them. By the way, viburnum, bird cherry, linden are very attractive objects for aphids-settlers. Use them in distant (from the garden and the garden) landscape plantings.
People say - without a nightingale, spring is poor, and a garden without a bird is an orphan. Decorate your garden with birdhouses, for ladybugs (the worst enemies of aphids), propagate the calendula. For lacewings, hoverflies, wasps, ground beetles and other insects, cumin, parsley, marigolds, umbilicus, dill, coriander are suitable. The less chemistry will be used in the garden, the more nests of kings, warblers, tits, wagtails will appear, which will gladly help you clean the garden of pests. The choice is yours - to be in friendship with nature and not to poison it with pesticides or to be alone in a clean, but "dead" garden.