The 8 most spectacular indoor ferns
Modern ferns are those rare plants of antiquity that, despite the elapsed time and all kinds of cataclysms, not only survived, but in many ways were able to maintain their former appearance. In the indoor format, of course, it is not possible to grow any of the representatives of ferns, but some species have successfully adapted to life and indoors. They look great as single plants or decorate a group of decorative leafy flowers. The bright green of dissected leaves in the composition creates an atmosphere of the jungle and the humid forest.
Fern distribution in nature
Having appeared on the planet more than 400 million years ago, these higher plants survived the appearance and disappearance of dinosaurs, the change of historical periods, eras and eras, climate change, geography and geology of the continents, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Some plants replaced others, as more prepared for changing conditions, but only ferns did not leave the stage.
Each time, adjusting and adapting to the environment, they managed not only to survive, but also to maintain intraspecific diversity, thanks to which we can imagine the flora of the ancient world in many ways.
Despite all the diversity, often all species are called in one word - ferns. Meanwhile, this is one of the largest groups of spore plants, including 48 families and more than 10 thousand species of fern-shaped, among which there are grassy and tree-like forms.
The variety of ferns is manifested not only in the external difference - sizes from miniature to gigantic, the structure of leaves, which ferns call vayi, but also the conditions for their growth are also very different.
Epiphytic ferns can be found in the forest, where they grow on the branches and trunks of trees, in crevices of rocks, along roadsides and even on the walls of houses. For many of these plants, the main conditions are heat and dampness, so most species prefer moist tropics and subtropics.
The geography of distribution of ferns is very extensive. Various species were able to adapt to the most difficult conditions, so you can meet them not only in the jungle, but also in the coniferous forests of Siberia, Bashkiria and the Far East. About 20 species of ferns grow in Central Russia.
Features of growing indoor ferns
Some types of ferns feel good in our homes, being able to adapt to the potted content. Despite the external differences, sometimes very significant, the content requirements for indoor species are very similar:
- high humidity;
- good lighting without exposure to sunlight;
- temperature in summer no higher than 23aboutFROM;
- winter dormancy with decreasing temperature;
- top dressing only in the spring-summer period;
- timely irrigation with settled water at room temperature;
- transplantation as the outlet grows;
- nutritious air and moisture permeable soil;
- if necessary, division of the mother plant.
See below for a list of the best ferns for indoor maintenance.
Most common in nature is the genus of ferns. Nephrolepis (Nephrolepis). About 30 species of this plant grow everywhere, and you can meet them in the most unexpected places. Unpretentiousness, resistance to various diseases and pests was appreciated by flower growers in many countries of the world, and certain types of nephrolepis migrated to the premises.
One of the most popular potted ferns is Nephrolepisum sublime. This species is quite common in homes, as it is the most unpretentious among its counterparts. Vayy of a nephrolepis reach 70 cm in length and, thanks to numerous cuts, remind exotic feathers of gentle green color.
If the fern is kept in suitable conditions, and ideal for it is diffused light, heat and high humidity, then it will certainly become the center of attention in the apartment - numerous bright slightly curved vaiyi will not leave anyone indifferent.
Nephrolepis Boston - A close relative of the sublime Nephrolepis. It differs from its relative only in the form of leaf blades, which, twisting, give the whole plant a curly and very decorative look.
Nephrolepis Heart-shaped different erect vayami with delicate rounded leaves. Twigs of this species look very original and are often used to create bouquets and all kinds of floral arrangements. However, other types of ferns are also used for these purposes.
All types of nephrolepses easily reproduce and do not create special problems during cultivation. They can reproduce as spores formed on the lower side of the leaf plate, and offspring that appear on short ground rhizomes.
An adult plant is propagated by dividing the rhizome, while the fern should have several growth points. Their number will determine how many divisions will result from the operation. Reproduction by spores does not always bring results, since they do not fully mature in indoor plants. Therefore, this method is used extremely rarely by flower growers.
Read more about growing nephrolepis in the article Nephrolepis - unpretentious and elegant.
Well maintained room conditions and some types Aspleniums (Asplenium) The second name of this fern is bones. The Asplenium family unites about 500 different species of this plant, which can be found in the tropical forests of Africa and South America, India, Australia and New Zealand. Florists plant several species of this plant, which are completely different from each other.
Asplenium nest-shaped It is a rosette of long smooth leaves with slightly wavy edges and looks more like a bromeliad. The length of the leaves often exceeds 70 cm, and thanks to them, the whole plant has a very attractive solemn appearance. In nature, this epiphytic plant grows on tree trunks and feeds on moisture and organic substances that accumulate in the center of the outlet. This feature should be considered when growing in a room.
Two types of asplenium - bulbous and viviparous - are similar to each other not only externally, but also by the method of reproduction. Vaiyi of these plants are similar to nephrolepis - the same dissected pale green color. An adult plant forms daughter rosettes on the surface of the leaf plate, which, over time, fall off from the mother plant and, having landed on moist soil, easily root.
Read more about the types and characteristics of growing aspleniums in the article Asplenium, or Kostenets - a green fountain.
A very interesting view of fern - Platicerium, or Antlers (Platycerium). This is a rare plant, it can be found in greenhouses or gardeners truly passionate about their work. In nature, a few representatives of this species live in Australia, India and some parts of Africa.
Like many other ferns, the platycerium is an epiphytic plant and in nature can reach very large sizes. Thanks to the original dissection, the smooth long waiyes of the platycerium look like deer horns, for which he was nicknamed.
The peculiarity of this fern is that it has two types of waii - some are long, up to 1 meter and smooth, while others have special recesses in the form of pockets. Moisture, insect remains, seeds of various plants and leaves accumulate in these bins. Over time, all this rots, and the resulting organics nourishes the plant.
The platicerium does not form spores and is bred only by lateral layers, which appear quite rarely. Most often, flower growers place deer horns in hanging pots or attach to snags. For pots, make a mixture of bark, moss, twigs or buy ready-made soil for orchids. If deer horns are grown on driftwood, then you need to provide the plant with the necessary humidity, and when watering, immerse the snag in water so that it is saturated with moisture.
For more information about the types and cultivation of platiceriums, see the article Platicerium, or Ploskorog - the most unusual of ferns.
Adiantum, or Curly Fern (Adiantum) - One of 200 representatives of the Adiantum family. In nature, certain species of adiantums are found in East Asia and South America, and in each of these two zones their own centers of species belonging are formed. Some varieties of this elegant fern can be grown indoors.
Adiantum Venus Hair - perhaps the most elegant of all indoor ferns, but also the most moody. Long vayi of this plant are similar to brown thin threads, humbled by delicate small leaves of delicate green color. Through the plate segments shine located on the lower side of the sores - spore-bearing areas.
In nature, the adiantum chooses for itself secluded places in crevices of rocks, among rocky placers, near streams and lakes. The main thing for him is that there is a shadow and moisture. If it is possible to create similar conditions in the room, then there will be no problems with the cultivation of the adiantum.
The plant is propagated, usually by dividing the rhizome or a piece of root with 2 to 3 buds. To grow Venereum hair from spores, you will need a small greenhouse with constantly moist and warm air.
Many years ago, while working in a greenhouse, I tried to grow an adiantum out of spores, but all my attempts ended in nothing - the disputes stubbornly did not want to sprout. Pots with uterine plants stood on our floor, in the darkest corner, as far as the concept of "dark" is appropriate for a sunny greenhouse.
And what was my surprise when one of the days I saw that the green grass, breaking through between the plates on the floor - these are small sprouts of the adiantum. Damp and concrete slabs for them were better than any greenhouse. So she planted them later - separated with a fork and in a pot.
Read more about the types and cultivation of adiantums in the article Openwork adiantum - a popular indoor fern.
A large family of pterisovyh presented their representative with indoor floriculture - Pteris (Pteris). Ferns of this species are ubiquitous - where there are tropics or subtropics, there are pteris. In indoor floriculture, several types of pteris are common, but they are all quite unpretentious.
Pteris Cretan - the owner of beautiful cirrus leaves up to 50 cm long. Segments are arranged in pairs from 2 to 6 and have a beautiful color - the center of the plate is bluish-green in color with a dark border at the edges.
Pteris xiphoid it looks a bit like Cretan pteris, but its color is somewhat darker, and the leaf segments have jagged edges.
All species of pteris prefer high humidity, a well-lit location, but without exposure to sunlight. Grow well at moderate temperatures not higher than 22aboutC. In winter, a rest period is necessary with a decrease in temperature to 17-18aboutC. Lower temperatures are undesirable, although hardy pteris can withstand short-term cooling to 10aboutFROM.
Pteris propagates, like most ferns, by spores and division of the bush.
Read more about the types of pteris and about caring for it at room conditions in the article Pteris - the most unpretentious of ferns.
Pelleta (Pellaea) belongs to the synopteris family and is found in the subtropical forests of Africa, South America and New Zealand. Pelles, or, as they are also called, push-button ferns, are grown mainly in greenhouses or in winter gardens, since these are the most capricious of all indoor ferns.
Round-shaped pellet the owner of beautiful juicy greens. Round leathery segments are tightly attached to thin fleecy shoots, forming a dense green bush, not more than 25 cm high. This is perhaps the only indoor fern that does not require high air humidity.
Under natural conditions, the pellet withstands dry periods, while dumping greens. With the onset of rains, the leaves form new segments and the plant takes its former form.
Despite the low humidity requirements, pellei is rarely grown in rooms, as it is very sensitive to air temperature and prefers cool contents, especially in winter.
In the greenhouses you can find other types of pellei - green pellet, spear-shaped pellet, pelleta naked, ovoid pellet, dark purple pellet. In general, these plants are similar to each other, differ mainly in shape and color of leaf segments and height, which varies from 25 to 60 cm depending on the species.
Read more about the characteristics of species and the cultivation of pellets, see the article Pelley - miniature fern.
Davallia (Davallia) - Another unpretentious epiphyte that could adapt to room conditions. The main habitats of the ferns of the Davalliev family are the tropics of Asia, Polynesia, the Canary Islands and the island of Java. A feature of davallia is openwork greens. Moreover, it has a yellowish tint on old, lower vayas, while young growths that appear from the center are blinded by their bright greenery.
The superficial roots of davallia, growing quickly, crawl out of the pot, giving the plant a very exotic look. In no case should you prune these roots - the plant may not survive this. Thanks to the shaggy roots hanging from the pot, davallia is also called “squirrel legs” or “hare legs”.
Long curved Vayi, allow the use of davallia as an ampelous plant. In a suspended planter with good lighting, the plant grows well and looks very attractive. The conditions of detention are the same as for other ferns, with the only difference being that not only greens, but also aerial roots need high humidity. Therefore, it is recommended to spray the plant from head to toe.
Davallia propagates by dividing the bush and the best time for this is spring.
Read more about the types and characteristics of growing davallia in the article Davallia - rabbit's foot.
Blechnum (Blechnum) - one of 200 species of ferns of the family of honeycomb. The geography of distribution of this plant is North America, Asia, Japan, Europe. Blechnum is highly decorative. Long vayi of this type of ferns, rushing upward, often reach a length of 1 m. Numerous green segments have an elongated shape and give the blackberry similar to a palm tree.
Soruses are located in pairs along the main vein on the underside of the green segments. Wii are assembled in a tight outlet, which is attached to a lignified short trunk. With age, the trunk stretches, and with it, the similarity with the palm tree increases.
Blechnum is very demanding not only for air humidity - the earthen lump should also always be slightly moist. At the same time, moisture must not be allowed in the pot - drainage holes should work.
Fertilizers are applied in the spring and summer twice a month, while the concentration is made two times weaker than recommended. He does not like drafts and sudden changes in temperature, so most likely a room with an open wide window will not suit him.
The optimum temperature during the growing season + 20 ... + 25aboutC, during the rest period + 18 ... + 20aboutS. Blehnum does not like frequent transplants, therefore he is transplanted only as necessary.
Blehnum is not the easiest fern for indoor maintenance, but if it is possible to provide him with suitable conditions, it is difficult to come up with the best decoration for the room.
Read more about indoor species and the features of cultivating blehnums in the article Blehnum - fern is not for everyone.
Dear readers! Ferns in the rooms not only live, grow, but also multiply. Of course, in order for the flower to grow healthy and look chic, it will take some effort. But this does not stop gardeners, especially since nothing beyond the natural is needed. More often spraying, watering and fertilizing on time, put away from the sun and heating appliances is easy. And for owners of apartments with windows to the north - a collection of ferns will replace exotic plants that can not do without the sun.