On structural garden soils with a deep fertile layer, gooseberries can be cultivated for more than twenty years. On infertile sandy or peaty soils, bushes older than 10-12 years old are inappropriate to leave. Illuminated areas of the garden, as well as rows of fruit trees, are protected from the prevailing winds under the culture.
Gooseberries tolerate soil acidity better than other berry crops. With the rational introduction of organic and mineral fertilizers, it is successfully cultivated even on sandy soil. Unsuitable for planting heavy clay soils with close groundwater. On the slopes of the plant should be placed in the upper or middle part to avoid severe damage by spring frosts, soaking, winter freezing and damage by fungal diseases.
The annual application of organic and vineral fertilizers is recommended on poor sandy or loamy soils; on medium-fertile - after a year, and on cultivated old plots - after two years.
Approximate doses of fertilizer applied to the bush: manure, compost or peat feces - 8-10 kg, ammonium nitrate - 30-50 g, potassium chloride - 20-30 g, superphosphate -50-80 g.
In addition to basic fertilizers, on fertile soils apply summer top dressing with solutions of organic and mineral fertilizers. To prepare such solutions, tanks or barrels are buried up to half in the ground, filled 1/4 or 1/5 of the height with mullein, bird droppings or slurry, poured, stirring with water. The prepared solution is still diluted with water: mullein - 4-5 times, bird droppings - 10-12 times, slurry - 6-8 times. Fertilizers are applied along the bucket into the furrows between the bushes. Mineral fertilizers can be used for top dressing immediately after dissolving in water or in rainy weather, in dry form, scattering along the grooves.
The first top dressing is carried out after flowering. This favorably affects the growth of shoots and ovaries. Top dressing after harvesting contributes to a better preparation of the plant for winter, laying flower buds.
Gooseberries are more drought tolerant than other berry crops. But in dry weather, watering is necessary during periods of the most intensive growth of shoots and ovaries, as well as after harvest, combining with liquid top dressing. The norm of watering is 0.5-1 bucket of water per young bush (per hole). In the area of adult fruiting bushes, watering is carried out along the furrows along the rows. After the dry season, late-autumn watering is applied — 1-2 buckets per bush or along furrows, without creating stagnation of water.
Cropping and shaping
Pruning and formation of early varieties with a large shoot-producing ability is carried out for 2-3 years. Of the basal shoots growing in the first growth season, 3-5 of the most developed are left; in the second year their number doubles. At the beginning of fruiting, the bush has 12-15 shoots of substitution and branches of different ages, at the optimum age - 20-25 branches of different ages. The main crop is formed on the growth of last year and two-year-old seedlings, so branches older than five are removed. Bushes older than 10-12 years uproot.
Particular attention is paid to annual intensive thinning and rationing of root shoots to create a larger fruiting surface on the periphery of the bush.
The successful cultivation of gooseberries depends on the regular introduction of organo-mineral composts. To make compost, peat, manure, vegetable tops, fallen leaves, straw, old sawdust, needles are laid in the pile, sandwiched every 30-40 cm with mineral fertilizers. Nitrogen fertilizers - 400-500 g, superphosphate - 500-600, potassium - 350-400, ground limestone up to 400 g are scattered on 1 m2 of compost surface
In dry weather, the shoulder shed and shovel the top layer. During the deep digging, it is recommended to add 18-20 kg of organo-mineral composts to the area allotted for each plant (1.5 X 1.5 m or 1.0 X 1.5 m). Fresh manure or litter before planting is not introduced to avoid root burns. If the compost is not prepared, then organic and mineral fertilizers are added to each planting pit (40 x 40 or 40 x 60 cm): humus or compost - 1.5–2 buckets, peat - 2 buckets, superphosphate - 250–300 g, potash salt - 30-40, wood ash - 300, ground limestone - 100-150 g. A carefully mixed mixture of fertilizers is applied to the bottom of the pit and covered with the upper fertile layer of the earth.
Landing. The best landing period is the second half of September - early October. Before planting, the roots are dipped in a soil mash, the branches of seedlings are cut, leaving 3-4 shoots with four to five buds on each. With a delay in planting, the dried seedlings are put into the water for 4-5 hours. When planting, the roots in the pit are straightened, covered with earth from the aisle and compacted soil around the seedling. Watering is required - 0.5-1 bucket of water. Mulch with a mixture of dry earth, humus, peat or fine sawdust with a layer of 8-10 cm.
After landing care. To preserve moisture, better growth of ovaries, shoots and roots, the soil around the bushes is loosened, weeded and mulched with peat, humus (10-12 kg under the bush) or mulching paper. In the fall, row-spacings are dug up with garden pitchforks to a depth of 12-15 cm, and in rows and near bushes - by 10-12 cm. Organic fertilizers (compost, rotted manure) are closed up in the trunks of the bushes entering fruiting. Mineral fertilizers (superphosphate, potassium salt, wood ash, ground limestone) are scattered over the entire area occupied by gooseberries. In the area of adult bushes, organic fertilizers are applied under the bush and into the grooves along the row. In the spring, the aisles are dug shallowly (10-12 cm), while nitrogen fertilizers are applied as needed; remove hilling; loosen the soil to a depth of 6-8 cm. In summer, loosening and weeding is carried out 3-4 times.
Shrubs of varieties forming a small number of root shoots and later bearing fruit form in 5-6 years, since the main crop is placed on two-year-old seedlings and other fruit formations of three-, four-year-old branches. In such bushes, it is necessary to stimulate the growth of basal shoots, leaving 3-4 of the strongest annually, gradually preparing a replacement for branches older than 7-8 years with a weak growth or small crop. An adult fruiting bush should have 2-3 branches of one, seven year olds, in the amount of 20-25 branches. Such bushes are grown for 10 years or more.
When trimming gooseberry varieties, it is necessary to: remove weak basal shoots, as well as broken ones, affected by pests and diseases, cut branches growing inside the bush, lying on the ground (unsuitable for reproduction); cut off the branches frozen in the harsh winter to a strong increase, and root shoots to the surviving buds.
Pruning is carried out early in the spring (before the leaves bloom) or in the fall after leaf fall. Anti-aging pruning is carried out on old bushes of valuable varieties or thickened plants. To do this, remove 1/2 or 2/3 of the old branches in the fall, cutting them off at the soil level. In the spring, to stimulate the growth of young shoots, organic fertilizers are applied and watered abundantly. Next autumn, the remaining old branches are removed and the formation of a rejuvenated bush begins.
Reproduction of gooseberries with horizontal layers from young bushes with strong annual growth is the most common way. Under uterine bushes, the soil is loosened and fertilized abundantly with organo-mineral compost. The longest shoots are bent into the furrows between the bushes and densely pinned with hooks in several places. With the growth of vertical shoots with a length of 8-10 cm they are twice spud in wet weather. During the summer, it is abundantly watered, mulched with humus or peat. In autumn, well-rooted shoots are cut off and divided by the number of layering. Well-developed layers can be planted in a permanent place, and with a weak root system and one shoot left for the second season or placed in the nursery for growing. Layers for growing are planted in furrows, compacting the soil along the row after dusting the roots with earth. Planting pattern (20-25) X 60 cm with earthing up to a height of 8-10 cm. Early in spring, pruning is carried out for 3-4 buds, loosen, remove earthing up, water in dry weather, mulch. Delay with loosening of soil in spring can cause death of layering. During the summer, weeding, loosening, and feeding with ammonium nitrate in wet weather (30 g / m1) are necessary. Two-year-old seedlings of early-growing varieties with three to four branches 40-60 cm long enter fruiting a year after planting in a permanent place.
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Horizontal layering can be obtained from all shoots of a young bush. In the spring, holes are digged in the loose fertilized soil under the bush, annual shoots are laid in them and the middle part is covered with a mound of humus, leaving the upper end above the ground. After heavy rains, the hills spud. From each such shoot get 1-2 new bushes.
Vertical layering is obtained from older bushes. In the fall, the bush is cut, leaving one or two branches. In spring, emerging shoots are covered with loose fertile soil, leaving the tops and adding soil as they grow. Hilling is removed next fall, well-rooted layers are separated.
Lignified cuttings can propagate American-European hybrids, especially varieties: Change, Kolobok, Eaglet, Northern captain. In autumn, lignified cuttings are cut and placed in moist sand for callus formation. They are kept there for 1.5-2 months at a temperature of 2-3 ° C, then they are covered with sawdust, placed in a snow pile and stored until spring. In early spring, cuttings are planted in greenhouses under glass or film frames, leaving one or two buds.
Green cuttings are a faster and more efficient way of propagation. Spend it in nurseries or hotbeds with film frames. The soil is prepared from a mixture of peat with sand (1: 1) and laid with a layer of 10-15 cm. The cuttings are harvested during the period of shoot growth attenuation (June), they are cut with a sharp budding knife or razor 5-7 cm long, without removing the apex buds and not shortening leaf blades.
To improve root formation, cuttings are treated with growth stimulants — heteroauxin or indolylbutyric acid (IMA): 100–150 mg of heteroauxin or 30–35 mg of IMC per 1 liter of room temperature water. The solution is poured into a flat glass or enameled bath with a layer of 2-3 cm, the ends of the cuttings are immersed in it for 8-12 hours; up to 700 pieces are planted per 1 m2 of the greenhouse; planting depth 1.5-2 cm.
Root formation is more active at a substrate temperature of 18-20 ° C. When the temperature rises, the greenhouse is aired and slightly shaded in hot weather. The best way to water is to spray fine with a spray bottle or sprayer. At the same time, the substrate does not get too wet, the air goes to the roots, the leaves are constantly under a thin film of water, as in a fog. A thin spray is carried out until the adventitious roots appear.
Better development after rooting is facilitated by top dressing with a solution of mineral salts: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium (1: 2: 1). At the end of the season, to increase winter hardiness, they are once again fed with a solution of the same salts (1: 3: 3). The concentration of the solution is 1%, consumption per 10 m3 - 25 liters.
In fast-growing varieties with a strong shoot-producing ability, such as the Northern captain, Shift, Kolobok, rooting rate is up to 100%, the growth rate is 28–36 cm. Russian, Yubileyny, Moscow Emerald, Orlyonok, Plum varieties root at 76–88% , growth up to 24 cm. Weaker rooting in the varieties Rodnik, Pink 2 - 50-60%, growth 8-9 cm. European varieties Date, Green bottle, White triumph, Venus is not recommended to propagate by green cuttings.
Frost protection. Irrigation after midnight is an effective way to protect against frost. Smoke using bonfires made of wet straw, old leaves, debris raises the air temperature by 1C. If there are few bushes, they can be covered with plastic wrap or paper.
- I.V. Popova - Gooseberry.