Cotoneaster - quince's friend
Cotoneaster (Cotoneaster) - a genus of bushless shrubs, less often - small trees of the Pink familyRosaceae) The Latin name of cotoneaster comes from the Greek ‘cotonea’ - quince and ‘aster’ - having the form, similar to quince leaves of one of the species of cotoneaster.
Cotoneaster - deciduous or evergreen, densely branched shrubs, very common in the landscaping of cities in the European part of Russia, especially in low hedges. The leaves are medium-sized, simple, alternate, whole-marginal, ovate, dark green in summer, reddening in autumn. The flowers are white or pink, small, in shields, brushes or solitary.
The fruits are small, red or black. Grow slowly. In a permanent place they live long, more than 50 years. Not bad transfer transplant and city conditions. The genus has about 40 species.
The main attraction of cotoneaster is the combination of strong branching, original foliage and various forms of growth (from erect to creeping). Small flowers of white or pink color are not very decorative, but they are good honey plants.
A dense crown of dark green shiny leaves reddening in autumn is appreciated. These shrubs are simply indispensable for the construction of hedges, because they are easily formed, long retain their shape and transfer transplant at any time of the season. In addition, at the end of summer their decorative effect is enhanced by the abundance of bright red or black fruits, hanging on branches for a long time. The fruits are not toxic and attract birds.
Cotoneaster are hardy and drought-resistant. They successfully develop in the conditions of the city, as they are dust and gas resistant, are not very demanding on soil fertility and moisture. They grow well both in the light and in small shading. They are propagated by seeds, which necessarily need stratification, as well as layering, cuttings and grafting. Can be used as stock for pear. Some species are sometimes damaged by green apple aphids, apple white moth crumbs, scale insects, sawflies, cotoneaster mites.
Many species can be recommended for decorative groups, landing on slopes, slopes, retaining walls and alpine slides, for hedges, however, only a small number of species are used in culture.
Three species - cotoneaster brilliant, black-fruited and whole-fruited - have high winter hardiness and are especially resistant to the vagaries of weather in central Russia.
Location: develop better in areas with full coverage, but also tolerate partial shade.
The soil: soil fertility and moisture are undemanding. However, the following soil composition is still recommended: turf land, peat compost, sand in a ratio of 2: 1: 2. Multi-flowered cotoneaster needs 300 g / sq. Lime. m
Landing: distance between plants 0.5 - 2 m depending on the diameter of the crown of an adult plant. Planting depth 50 - 70 cm, root neck at ground level. Drainage is required (gravel or broken brick, a layer of 10 -20 cm).
Care: In the spring they make a complete mineral fertilizer: Kemiru universal from the calculation of 100 - 120 g per 1 sq. km. m or 20-30 g of urea per 10 liters of water. In the summer before flowering, they give granular superphosphate 60 g / sq. m and 10 - 15 g / sq. m potassium sulfate. Many types of cotoneaster are drought tolerant and do not require watering, or it is needed only in very dry summers, 1-2 times a month, 8 liters of water per plant. Loosening is carried out shallow (10 - 15 cm) after removal of the weeds. After planting the seedlings, mulching is done with peat, a layer of 5-8 cm. Cotoneaster trees are succumbed to shape pruning, dense hedges of medium height are formed. After trimming, they grow very much, retaining the shape of growth. Trimming is allowed to 1/3 of the length of the annual shoot. Cotoneaster hibernate with light cover with a dry leaf or peat layer of 3 - 6 cm or under snow. Sometimes in winter, the branches bend to the ground to protect the flower buds from frost.
Pest and disease protection
- Fusarium Remove and burn affected parts of plants. Disinfect the soil or change the planting area with a strong spread of the disease.
- The yellow bear is fought by spraying with any of the organophosphorus insecticides.
- Against aphids - early spring spraying with DNOC or nitrafen. In the larvae, they are sprayed with kalbofos, metaphos, horn, saifos. If necessary, spraying is repeated. Of plant infusions, black bleached, high quickness, potato tops, yarrow, shag, etc. are used.
- Against a moth, after flowering and in the summer, they are sprayed: amifosomes, karbofosomes (0.1 - 0.4%) or rogor (0.2%). The most effective are fosalon (0.2%) or gardon (0.1 -0.35%). During flowering, entobacterin is used, carrying out two or three times processing with an interval of 12-14 days.
Cotoneaster propagated by seeds, layering, cuttings, grafting. Seeds, as a rule, have very low germination (40 - b0%). Defective seeds, when washed, float and must be discarded. The remaining seeds should be sown and remember that they have a long dormant period and germinate very difficult. They must be stratified and sown in the fall of next year.
When propagated by green cuttings, a high percentage of rooting is obtained when the cuttings are covered with a film. The best time for grafting is the second half of July. The substrate consists of a mixture of peat and sand, taken in equal quantities.
Very valuable ornamental shrubs due to the dense crown, shiny dark green leaves and vibrant numerous fruits that remain on the branches for a long time. Recommended for forest edges, groups, solitary landings on the lawn, curbs and dense hedges. Some species are used for undergrowth, on rocky slides, slopes.
Cotoneaster brilliant (Cotoneaster lucidus)
The native land of this species is Eastern Siberia. It grows singly or in groups in bushes. Photophilous mesophyte, microtherm, mesotroph, assector of shrub groups and, less commonly, undergrowth of coniferous forests. In culture everywhere.
Dense leafy, upright, deciduous shrub, up to 2 m tall, with densely pubescent young shoots. Elliptical leaves are pointed, up to 5 cm long, shiny above, dark green, purple in autumn. Pink flowers are collected in loose, 3-8-flowered, corymbose inflorescences. It blooms in May - June for 30 days. Almost spherical, black fruits are decorative, shiny, with brown-red, tasteless flesh; they remain on the bushes until late autumn. Fruits in 4 years.
Winter-hardy, unpretentious to soils, shade-tolerant. Propagated by seeds and vegetatively. Seeds require a 12-15-month stratification, which can be reduced by treating them for 5-20 minutes with sulfuric acid, followed by a stratification of 1-3 months. The seeding rate of 5 g / sq. m
One of the best bushes for creating hedge-shaped hedges, as well as for group planting on lawns, forest edges, as an undergrowth. Suitable for landscaping cities of almost the entire territory of Russia. In culture since the beginning of the XIX century.
Cotoneaster Aronia (Cotoneaster melanocarpus)
It has good winter hardiness in central Russia. In the wild, it grows quite widely from Central Europe to Northern China, including the Caucasus and Central Asia, in bright forests and along mountain slopes, rising to the subalpine zone. It grows in a shrub layer of different types of forests, participates in the creation of shrubbery on screes and rocks. Photophilous mesophyte, microtherm, mesotroph, assector of undergrowth of shrubbery. It is protected in reserves.
This shrub up to 2 m high with red-brown shoots, like the previous species, has black fruits, but differs in leaf shape. Ovate leaves 4.5 cm long, dark green above, whitewashed below, with a blunt or notched apex. Starting from the age of 5, it blooms and bears fruit annually. Flowering lasts almost 25 days, pink flowers are located in the leaf axils of 5 ~ 12 pieces on the shoot, forming loose brushes. The spherical fruits, ripening in September and October, gradually turn from brown to black with a bluish bloom.
Frost-resistant species, not picky about soil and moisture, grows well in shaded places and in urban environments. It easily tolerates transplantation, propagated by cuttings and seeds. In culture since 1829, used in hedges, less often - in single and group plantings. Known decorative form (f. Laxiflora) with loose-flowering drooping inflorescences and larger leaves. In addition to decorative purposes, this species is a good honey plant, and its hard wood serves as material for canes, pipes and other crafts.
Cotoneaster whole or ordinary (Cotoneaster integerrimus)
In nature, it can be found from the Baltic states in the north to the North Caucasus - in the south. Grows on mountain slopes and talus, at the exits of sandstones, shales and limestones. Photophilous xeromesophyte, microtherm, mesotroph, assector shrubbery. It is protected in reserves. In a culture rarely.
Erect, highly branched, deciduous shrub up to 2 m tall, with a rounded crown. Young shoots with woolly drooping, later - naked. Shirokooyaytsevidnye, up to 5 cm, the leaves on top are dark green, shiny, smooth, bottom gray-felt. Pinkish-whitish flowers in 2-4-flowered drooping brushes. The fruits are bright red, up to 1 cm in diameter.
Low soil requirements, well developed on calcareous. It features high winter hardiness. It grows better in sunny places, drought and gas resistant. It is especially effective in fruits that persist until late autumn. It is used for planting in groups, hedges, forest edges, in the cities of the northern and central regions of Russia. In culture since 1656.
The following species - cotoneaster multiflorous, brush and pink - are more demanding on the choice of place, in very severe winters they can partially freeze, but they are saved from death by a high ability to regenerate.
Cotoneaster multiflorum (Cotoneaster multiflorus)
It is found in nature in the Caucasus, in Central Asia and Western Siberia, Western China. It grows singly or in small groups in forests, as well as in shrubs. Photophilous mesophyte, micromesotherm, mesotroph, assector of undergrowth of shrubbery. It is found in culture in the botanical gardens of Europe.
A semi-evergreen shrub up to 3 m tall, with thin, felt-pubescent in youth, curved branches. Wide egg-shaped leaves up to 5 cm long, silvery gray in spring, dark green in summer, purple red in autumn. Less hardy than cotoneaster brilliant. Quite large white flowers (up to 1 cm), similar in shape to the flowers of the blackberry, are collected in b - 20 in corymbose inflorescences and make it very effective during the flowering period of 16 to 25 days. Bright red, plentiful, spherical fruits enhance its decorativeness in the fall. Fruits in 5-6 years. The fruits ripen in August.
Frost tolerant and drought tolerant. For successful development, it needs fertile and lime-rich soil. Propagated by seeds. The seeding rate of 4 - 6 g per meter. Very good at solitary and forestry landings. Since 1879, it is widely distributed throughout the European part of Russia.
Cotoneaster Cotoneaster (Cotoneaster racemiflorus)
It is promising for central Russia. It is less known in culture than previous species.
This is a shrub up to 3 m high, with medium-sized bluish-green leaves. Young shoots and leaves on the underside are covered with dense white-white pubescence. Small flowers of white-pink color are collected in inflorescences of 7-12 pieces, cover the entire bush in May. The first flowering occurs at the age of 4. In August, when numerous fruits of an elliptical or spherical shape of a bright red color ripen, the shrub becomes even more elegant. The fruits do not fall after leaf fall and hang on the bush until the first snow.
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