Features of growing potatoes: agricultural technology
The birthplace of potatoes is America, where the natives gave it the well-known name "dad." Potato cultivation in Russia is associated with the name of Peter 1, and for more than 200 years this vegetable has not left private gardening. Indeed, in our country this is the main garden culture. Chef masters can cook more than 500 dishes, never repeating the previous ones. In terms of nutritional qualities, there is no vegetable crop that could replace potatoes in the diet. In addition, potatoes are also a technical crop used to produce starch and alcohol. They are the basis for obtaining molasses, glucose, glue, vitamin "C", rubber, medicines.
Please note that the process of preparing seed material for planting and planting potatoes is described in detail in a separate article: Features of growing potatoes: preparation and planting.
Autumn soil preparation for potatoes
Potato has a good property. It can invariably grow and form high yields in one place with the right agricultural technology of soil preparation and cultivation of crops up to 9 years. In order not to accumulate a negative background, it is better to cultivate potatoes in cultivation. Good precursors in the cultivation of potatoes are all pumpkin (zucchini, cucumbers, pumpkins), cabbage, beans, peas, corn.
Potato does not like acidified soils, prefers neutral ones. Therefore, in the spring, under preplanting loosening, wood ash, slaked lime or dolomite flour (200 g / sq. M area) is introduced into the soil. Deoxidizing agents can also be added for autumn soil preparation.
In the autumn after harvesting the predecessor, provocative irrigation is carried out (if necessary) to obtain seedlings of autumn weeds. After the destruction of weeds, they are introduced on cultivated rather fertile soils through a bucket of mature humus or compost per square meter. m. Add phosphoric and potassium fertilizers respectively 30 and 15 g / sq. The site is dug in southern chernozems with a 20–25 cm turnover in the stratum. On depleted soils with a small black soil horizon without a turnover of the stratum.
After 2-3 weeks, green manure is seeded. Of green manure crops, it is better to use white mustard, clover, oats, rye. They form significant biomass in a short time. With early sowing, green manure is planted in the soil in the fall, with later sowing, it is left until spring and sealed with deep loosening in the top layer (10-15 cm) before planting tubers.
On poorly cultivated soils with an insufficient level of nutrient content, the norms of applying organic and mineral fertilizers are increased by a factor of 2–3 and the green manure is necessarily planted.
Autumn fertilization and sideration of the plot will sufficiently provide early potatoes with nutrients. On chernozems, he does not need (due to the short growing season) additional feeding. On depleted and light soils, 30-40 g nitroammophoski or nitrogen fertilizers per square meter can be applied. m square.
When planting middle and later varieties with a long growing season, potatoes are fed in the following phases or periods of development:
- mass shoots with pale green foliage,
- mass flowering.
Top dressing is carried out in the form of solutions or dry forms of fertilizers for irrigation.
Top dressing during the period of mass seedlings is best done with nitrophos or nitroammophos and 30-40 g / sq. m square.
In the phase of mass budding, potatoes need potassium, phosphorus and trace elements. During this period, the development of plants will accelerate the fertilizing with potash and phosphorus fertilizers and wood ash. You can prepare a mixed solution for foliar dressing. In 10 l of water, mix 25 g of potassium sulfate and superphosphate with 0.5 cups of wood ash. Add 0.5 L of solution under the bush, then water and mulch. Instead of a solution, you can add a glass of wood ash under watering.
In the phase of mass flowering, potatoes are fed per sq. m of 30 g of superphosphate. On depleted soils, a mixture of 35-40 g of water-soluble superphosphate with a glass of chicken droppings or mullein mixed with 10 l of water is added to the furrows between the rows of potatoes or individually under the bush. Bushes are fed from a watering can without a nozzle of 0.5 l / bush, followed by hilling or 1 l of solution per 0.5 meter of furrow between the bushes, followed by soil closure, watering and mulching.
For top dressing potatoes, you can use new forms of fertilizer humate, urea (urea), Juno, Kemir and others. Standards, methods and periods of application are indicated on the packaging or accompanying instructions for use. Introduce them under loosening or hilling. In dry weather under irrigation followed by mulching. All types of top dressing finish in July or a month before digging potatoes.
In arid regions, potatoes are watered 3-4 times a month. In areas with sufficient rainfall, depending on the group (early, middle, late), 1-3 waterings are carried out for the entire growing season. Untimely watering dramatically reduces productivity. The tubers are small, the pulp is hard, tasteless. Determining the watering period is simple.
- If you started to fade the lower leaves on the bush - you need watering.
- Immerse your palm in the soil near the bush. If the soil on the floor of the palm is dry, watering is necessary immediately. In this case, the norm should be at least 5-6 l / bush. In case of drying out the soil, watering is carried out directly under the bush without pressure, so as not to erode the soil. Potato plantations are usually watered between the rows of furrows.
Of the diseases of potato, the most common fungal and bacterial rot: late blight, rhizoctoniosis, macrosporiosis, black leg and others.
Common control measures are: pre-planting treatment of tubers with tank mixtures, including phytosporin-M biofungicides, binoram, gamair, alirin, planriz and others.
During the growing season, it is necessary to treat the bushes with the biological products listed above, and you can also use Bordeaux liquid or a solution of copper sulfate, according to the recommendations. The use of biological products can begin with the phase of seedlings of potatoes and spray during the summer in 10-12 days until the harvest.
Copper-containing preparations begin to process the bushes from the growth phase of the bushes, single budding and spend once a month. The last treatment is carried out 2-3 weeks before the tops are cut before harvesting. The place of the diseased plant (after its removal) must be dusted with a mixture of ash and copper sulfate, based on a glass of ash, a teaspoon of the drug.
It is useful to cultivate the soil and bushes of potatoes (more efficiently young) during the summer several times before hilling with wood ash. The soil can be dusted with chalk.
On potatoes, non-parasitic diseases often develop, associated with a violation of agricultural care techniques (fertilizing, watering) or climatic conditions (prolonged rains, low temperatures, dampness). They do not accumulate in soil and plants, do not apply to healthy plantings. With the change of weather to a more favorable one and optimization of agricultural technology, the diseases disappear.
The most dangerous pests of potatoes are the bear, the Colorado potato beetle, wireworm, and nematode. Effective chemicals have been developed against each pest, treatment of which 1-3 times during the summer period destroys the pests and their larvae: sonnet, confidor, spark, decis, bazudine (soil preparation). But at home, it is better to grow potatoes without chemicals.
There are good biological products that destroy pests and at the same time harmless to humans and pets. A wide spectrum of action on pests is characterized by biological preparations Nemabact, Antonem-F. Good results are obtained using bicol, bitoxibacillin and other biological products. Biological products against diseases and pests can be prepared in tank mixtures, which reduces the number of plant treatments.
Pay attention to the material: Methods of combating the Colorado potato beetle.
Protection of potatoes from diseases and pests
A disease is easier to prevent than to cure. Therefore, to obtain healthy potato tubers, it is necessary to carry out preventive measures annually that reduce or destroy the causes of the disease.
- Only grow zoned varieties resistant to disease.
- To grow vegetable crops, including potatoes, in cultural turnover.
- When growing potatoes in one place for several years, annually disinfect the soil.
- Remove diseased bushes from the field and destroy.
- Destroy diseased leaves and do not use for composting.
- Avoid cutting tubers as far as possible before planting.
- Do not bring manure under the potatoes. Use in autumn application of mature humus, compost, vermicompost.
Timely top dressing, maintaining the soil in optimal humidity, cultivating with hilling, protecting potatoes from diseases and pests contribute to obtaining high yields of good taste. The start of harvesting is determined by several factors:
- yellowing and dying of tops in middle and late varieties of potatoes,
- in early varieties they are guided mainly by the calendar harvest dates specified in the recommendations for the variety. Harvesting early varieties sometimes begin with green tops.
6-10 days before harvesting, the potato tops are mowed, which contributes to the formation of a rougher peel on the tubers, as well as their ripening. Harvesting is carried out in dry weather, but with prolonged rains they dig out immediately and sprinkle for drying. Wet potatoes are severely affected by fungal rot. Do not delay the harvesting of late varieties intended for long-term storage.
Low temperature dramatically reduces product quality. The decrease in soil temperature to +3 ° C with untimely harvesting causes the death of up to 80% of tubers. After harvesting, potato tops are taken out of the field and destroyed if during the summer a disease of potato planting was observed. If the tops are healthy, lay in compost pits. All potatoes (small, diseased) are removed from the field and, when dried, healthy tubers are selected. Patients destroy.