Rosehips in the world
To begin with, we will understand what a rose hip is. Rosehip (Rosa) Is a genus of plants that includes more than three hundred species, including the cultivated rose, which has been praised by mankind for centuries. Rose, we are used to call the cultivars of wild rose, bred over the centuries by breeders. According to various sources, there are from ten to fifty thousand varieties of roses in the world. In this article we will talk about the distribution of wild rose in the world.
- Archaeological data on rose hips
- Rose Hip Spread
- Rosehip on different continents
- Rosehip in the life of different countries
Archaeological data on rose hips
The earliest archaeological finds of rose hips belong to the Paleocene (covers the time from 66.0 to 56.0 million years ago) and the Eocene (covers the time from 56.0 to 33.9 million years ago).
In Europe, there are also late finds from Oligocene (started 33.9 and ended 23.03 million years ago) to Pliocene (starts 5.332 and ends 2.588 million years ago). The most important find in Europe were the remains of Rosa lignitum, Rosa bohemica and Rosa bergaensis. These are long extinct species, remaining only in the form of sediments.
Unfortunately, there is no reliable data on where and when the dog rose appeared, as well as about its ancestors. However, initially the plant was distributed exclusively in the northern hemisphere, but after the climate became much colder in the Miocene (beginning 23.03 - ending 5.333 million years ago), the dog rose moved south.
In those ancient times, wild rose could be found almost everywhere: in the fields, in the dense forests of central Europe, on rocks and ledges, on coastal ramparts and dunes. Since people needed land for farming, forests and shrubs, including rose hips, had to make room. For this reason, many species of rose hips are lost forever, and some of the species are in danger of complete extinction. Later, people moved the dog rose to their settlements and cultivated lands.
Rose Hip Spread
Rosehip is common in the temperate and subtropical zones of the Northern Hemisphere, it can often be found in the mountainous regions of the tropical zone. Some species of rose hips are common from the Arctic Circle in the north to Ethiopia in the south. On the American continent - from Canada to Mexico. Favorable conditions for Rosehip are in the Mediterranean region. Several species of the Rosehip genus have an extensive distribution area.
- Rosehip needle (Rosa acicularis) can be found from high-altitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere to the island and mountain regions of Japan.
- Dog rose (Rosa canina) is found in the mountains of the Caucasus in Central Asia in Iran.
- Rosehip May (Rosa majalis) is more familiar to us as Rose of May. Distributed from areas of Scandinavia to the central part of Siberia.
- Rosehip prickly (Rosa spinosissima) is the progenitor of many varieties of Roses. It stretches from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, paving its way through one of the largest continents - Eurasia.
In the subtropics, rose lianas, also known as climbing roses, are most common. These forms are evergreen. To the north you can already see deciduous forms. As a rule, these rosehip forms have white flowers with multi-flowered inflorescences.
The widespread use of wild rose and its cultivated species and hybrids, led to the fact that, under favorable conditions, they spread, settled and run wild on both sides of the equator.
Now the wild rose can be found everywhere growing single plant or group. Dogrose is common as undergrowth in all types of forests. It can be found along the banks of rivers, at the headwaters and springs, in meadows and in the mountains. You can meet him on the sea coast and in the steppe.
Wild rose hips are not afraid of low temperatures, which many breeders use, planting cultivar hybrids on it and creating many new ones. Rosehips are undemanding to drought-resistant soils. Preferring loamy soils with moderate humidity, rose hips will not be able to grow in dry and waterlogged areas.
Thanks to the evolution and acquisition of thorns in its course, the dog rose has protected itself from most herbivores. Few animals are able to eat its shoots, which favors its development and distribution.
Eating ripened, having gathered juice and sweetness of fruits by various animals and birds, helps to spread over long distances. Some animals, creating reserves and forgetting about them, contribute to the formation of denser thickets.
Fragrant flowers of wild rose attract a lot of pollinators, which contributes to the formation of more fruits.
Rosehip is also spread by water. The fruits that have fallen into the water drift until they come ashore and can germinate there.
Rosehip on different continents
Rosehip conquered the entire European part of the continent to the Arctic belt. Here you can find more than sixty species, most of which grow in the mountainous regions of the former Soviet Union.
- In the Caucasus, once it was possible to count up to fifty species of rose hips.
- In Ukraine, grows to sixty species, most can be found in the mountainous regions of the Carpathians.
- In Moldova, 23 species are growing.
- In Belarus, eleven out of twenty species are feral cultures.
- In the European part of Russia, there are seven endemic (growing on a limited range) of more than forty species.
- In the Baltics 23 species of rose hips grow
- In the rest of Europe, there are up to fifty species.
Some species grown as ornamental plants have run wild over time.
The Asian part of the continent also submitted to rose hips. Here, there are up to one hundred and fifty species - this is probably the largest variety of this genus. With the exception of the arid parts of the Asian part, wild rose has spread everywhere. Rosehip could not naturalize only in deserts and semi-deserts.
Rosehip is also found in the mountainous regions of India, Japan and central Asia. The most, as it turned out, the deplorable state in Pakistan. Here, due to land development, many species that already need protection are disappearing and can only be found at mountain heights.
The largest number of species can be found in China, there are up to 80 of them. Many of these species were taken as the basis for creating cultivars.
From the northern tip of the continent to the desert regions of Ethiopia, the dog rose has its roots and settled on this hot continent.
One species of Rosa abyssinica is known, which has a natural habitat, the remaining species are usually endemic. Disputes are ongoing about the origins of Musk Rosehip (Rosa moschata).
In South Africa, in the southernmost region for the Rosehip genus, there is a hybrid of Rosehip multiflora (Rosa multiflora) and cultural Damascus (Rosa damascena) ‘Natal Briar’. Here, this hybrid can be found on the coast and along the roads.
Flower escort companies use it as a stock for cultivars.
In the North American continent, wild rose has spread from northern Canada to Mexico. There are up to 70 species of wild rose, up to 60 of which are endemic.
Of the endemic species on the continent, there are no species with yellow flowers.
Australia and New Zealand
On the continent of Australia and the islands of New Zealand, wild rose is an imported plant. Since the beginning of the 20th century, the most widespread species here - wild rose, red-brown, was included in the list of plants in the law against malicious weeds.
Rosehip in the life of different countries
The distribution of rose hips is reflected in many geographical names. The most famous of them: Santa Rosa and Santa Rosa - in Latin America, Monte Rosa - a mountain range in Switzerland, Rosenheim - an ancient city in Bavaria, Gulistan - in Iran, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, etc.
Rose is a national flower of the USA. In addition: Rosa arkansana - Iowa since 1897 and North Dakota since 1907, smooth rose or rose hip (Rosa laevigata) - Georgia since 1916, and a rose in general - New York since 1955.
The Beauty American Beauty ’rose variety is Washington's national flower. Spiked rosehips - a national flower of the Canadian state of Alberta since 1930.
Rose - the national flower of England, dog rose - Hampshire counties, red rose - Lancashire counties. Rosa is a symbol and semi-official emblem of Bulgaria.
Rose of China is a symbol of Beijing.
Rosehip and rose, widespread everywhere, had a very big impact on the history and culture of mankind. But we will talk about this next time.